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  • 锂电池的发展进程
  • 本站编辑:杭州极速电子有限公司发布日期:2019-06-13 14:47 浏览次数:
发展进程
1970年代埃克森的M.S.Whittingham采用硫化钛作为正极材料,金属锂作为负极材料,制成首个锂电池。
1980年,J. Goodenough 发现钴酸锂可以作为锂离子电池正极材料。
1982年伊利诺伊理工大学(the Illinois Institute of Technology)的R.R.Agarwal和J.R.Selman发现锂离子具有嵌入石墨的特性,此过程是快速的,并且可逆。与此同时,采用金属锂制成的锂电池,其安全隐患备受关注,因此人们尝试利用锂离子嵌入石墨的特性制作充电电池。首个可用的锂离子石墨电极由贝尔实验室试制成功。
1983年M.Thackeray、J.Goodenough等人发现锰尖晶石是优良的正极材料,具有低价、稳定和优良的导电、导锂性能。其分解温度高,且氧化性远低于钴酸锂,即使出现短路、过充电,也能够避免了燃烧、爆炸的危险。
1989年,A.Manthiram和J.Goodenough发现采用聚合阴离子的正极将产生更高的电压。
1991年索尼公司发布首个商用锂离子电池。随后,锂离子电池革新了消费电子产品的面貌。
1996年Padhi和Goodenough发现具有橄榄石结构的磷酸盐,如磷酸锂铁(LiFePO4),比传统的正极材料更具优越性,因此已成为当前主流的正极材料。
随着数码产品如手机、笔记本电脑等产品的广泛使用,锂离子电池以优异的性能在这类产品中得到广泛应用,并在逐步向其他产品应用领域发展。
1998年,天津电源研究所开始商业化生产锂离子电池。
2018年7月15日,从科达煤炭化学研究院获悉,一种由纯碳作为主要成分的高容量高密度锂电池用特种碳负极材料在该院问世,这种由全新材料制备的锂电池可以实现汽车续航里程突破600公里。 
2018年10月,南开大学梁嘉杰、陈永胜教授课题组与江苏师范大学赖超课题组合作成功制备了具有多级结构的银纳米线—石墨烯三维多孔载体,并负载金属锂作为复合负极材料。这一载体可抑制锂枝晶产生,从而可实现电池超高速充电,有望大幅延长锂电池“寿命”。该研究成果在最新一期《先进材料》上发表
Development process
In the 1970s, Exxon's M.S. Whittingham used titanium sulfide as a positive material and metallic lithium as a negative material to make the first lithium battery.
In 1980, J. Goodenough found that lithium cobalt can be used as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.
In 1982 R.R. Agarwal and J.R. Selman of the Illinois Institute of Technology discovered that lithium ions have the characteristics of embedded graphite. This process is fast and reversible. At the same time, lithium batteries made of metallic lithium have received much attention for their safety hazards. Therefore, people try to use the characteristics of lithium ion embedded in graphite to make rechargeable batteries. The first available lithium-ion graphite electrode was successfully trial-produced by Bell Labs.
In 1983, M. Thackeray, J. Goodenough and others discovered that manganese spinel is an excellent positive material with low price, stability, and excellent conductive and lithium conductivity. Its decomposition temperature is high, and its oxidization is much lower than that of lithium cobalt. Even if there is a short circuit and overcharging, it can avoid the danger of combustion and explosion.
In 1989, A. Manthiram and J. Goodenough found that the positive electrode using polymeric anions would generate higher voltage.
In 1991 Sony released its first commercial lithium-ion battery. Subsequently, lithium-ion batteries revolutionized consumer electronics.
In 1996 Padhi and Goodenough discovered that phosphate with olivine structure, such as lithium iron phosphate(LiFePO4), is more advantageous than traditional positive materials and has therefore become the current mainstream positive material.
With the widespread use of digital products such as mobile phones and laptops, lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in these products with excellent performance and are gradually developing into other product applications.
In 1998, the Tianjin Power Research Institute began commercializing the production of lithium ion batteries.
On July 15, 2018, it was learned from the Kodak Institute of Coal Chemistry that a special carbon negative material for high-capacity high-density lithium batteries with pure carbon as the main component was introduced in the Institute. This lithium battery prepared from new materials can achieve car life. The mileage exceeds 600 kilometers.
In October 2018, Professor Liangjiajie and Professor Chenyongsheng of Nankai University and Lai Chaochao of Jiangsu Normal University successfully prepared a multi-stage structure of silver nanowires, graphene three-dimensional porous carriers, and loaded metal lithium as a composite negative material. This carrier can inhibit the production of lithium dendrites, so that the battery can be charged at a high speed, and it is expected to significantly extend the "life" of lithium batteries. The findings were published in the latest issue of Advanced Materials